Labor, household, poverty and human capital

Our research includes modelling and empirical analysis of the nature and functioning of households in developing countries, as a framework to understand household decision making regarding human capital investments as well as fertility and household formation, and their implications for inter-generational mobility and intra-household conflict.

To shed light on the pathways between household decision-making and long-term mobility, our group also focuses on identifying cultural and behavioral frictions in the labor market, analyzes the roles of cognitive and non-cognitive skills and social protection policies on occupational choice and labor market outcomes, and looks at the impacts of external shocks, such as trade liberalization, on both the formal and informal labor markets.

Our research also directly evaluates the short and long-term impacts of specific social policies, such as educational, health, early childhood interventions, pensions and cash transfers. Using both experimental and quasi-experimental designs, and a combination of original survey and administrative data, impacts on human capital outcomes, labor market and long-term welfare are investigated, shedding light on the potential of such interventions to break (or in contrast reinforce) the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality.

Related Publications

Díaz, Juan-José, and Saldarriaga, Victor , “(Un)Conditional Love in the Time of Conditional Cash Transfers: The Effect of the Peruvian JUNTOS Program on Spousal Abuse.”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2022.

Macours, Karen, Premand, Patrick and Vakis, Renos. 2022. “Transfers, Diversification and Household Risk Strategies: Experimental Evidence with Lessons for Climate Change Adaptation”, Economic Journal, 2022. ueac018

Oh, Suanna, “Does Identity Affect Labor Supply? Revise & Resubmit, American Economic Review. [Slides]SSRN  Coverage: Marginal Revolution, World Bank Blogs, Livemint, Ideas for India, VoxDev

Oh, Suanna, “Do Financial Concerns Make Workers Less Productive?” with Supreet Kaur, Sendhil Mullainathan, and Frank Schilbach, Revise & Resubmit, Quarterly Journal of Economics [Slides]SSRNNBER WPEconimate video Coverage: VoxDev, NPR Planet Money, Ideas for India, JPAL

Banerjee, Abhijit, Esther Duflo, Clement Imbert, and Pande Rohini. 2020. “Entry, Exit and Candidate Selection: Experimental Evidence from India.”

Boltz, Marie, Karine Marazyan, and Paola Villar. 2020. “Is Informal Redistribution Costly? Evidence from a Lab-in-the-Field Experiment in Senegal.” World Bank Economic Review 34 (Supplement_1): 72–78.

Bobba, Matteo, and Jérémie Gignoux. 2019. “Neighborhood Effects in Integrated Social Policies.” World Bank Economic Review 33 (1): 116–39.

Boltz, Marie, Karine Marazyan, and Paola Villar. 2019. “Income Hiding and Informal Redistribution: A Lab-in-the-Field Experiment in Senegal.” Journal of Development Economics 137 (C): 78–92.

Cassan, Guilhem. 2019. “Affirmative Action, Education and Gender: Evidence from India.” Journal of Development Economics 136: 51–70.

Bouguen, Adrien, Deon Filmer, Karen Macours, and Sophie Naudeau. 2018. “Preschool and Parental Response in a Second Best World: Evidence from a School Construction Experiment.” Journal of Human Resources 53 (2): 474–512.

Chort, Isabelle, and Jean-Noël Senne. 2018. “You’ll Be a Migrant, My Son: Accounting for Migrant Selection within the Household.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 66 (2): 217–63.

Alvaredo, Facundo, Augustin Bergeron, and Guilhem Cassan. 2017. “Income Concentration in British India, 1885–1946.” Journal of Development Economics 127: 459–69.

Chort, Isabelle, Flore Gubert, and Jean-Noël Senne. 2016. “Des Données Appariées Pour Mieux Comprendre Les Liens Entre Migrants et Familles d’origine (Middas).” Revue Tiers-Monde HS (5): 151–74.

Beck, Simon, Philippe De Vreyer, Sylvie Lambert, Karine Marazyan, and Abla Safir. 2015. “Child Fostering in Senegal.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 46 (1): 57–73.

Benhassine, Najy, Florencia Devoto, Esther Duflo, Pascaline Dupas, and Victor Pouliquen. 2015. “Turning a Shove into a Nudge? A ‘Labeled Cash Transfer’ for Education.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 7 (3): 86–125.

Cassan, Guilhem. 2015. “Identity-Based Policies and Identity Manipulation: Evidence from Colonial Punjab.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 7 (4): 103–131.

Chauvet, Lisa, Flore Gubert, Marion Mercier, and Sandrine Mesplé-Somps. 2015. “Migrants’ Home Town Associations and Local Development in Mali.” Scandinavian Journal of Economics 117 (2): 686–722.

Barham, Tania, Karen Macours, and John A. Maluccio. 2013. “Boys’ Cognitive Skill Formation and Physical Growth: Long-Term Experimental Evidence on Critical Ages for Early Childhood Interventions.” American Economic Review 103 (3): 467–71.

Bossuroy, Thomas, and Denis Cogneau. 2013. “Social Mobility in Five African Countries.” Review of Income and Wealth 59 (S1): S84–110.

Chauvet, Lisa, Flore Gubert, and Sandrine Mesplé-Somps. 2013. “Aid, Remittances, Medical Brain Drain and Child Mortality: Evidence Using Inter and Intra-Country Data.” Journal of Development Studies 49 (6): 801–18.

Bourguignon, François, and Amedeo Spadaro. 2012. “Tax–Benefit Revealed Social Preferences.” The Journal of Economic Inequality 10 (1): 75–108.

Bourguignon, François. 2012. “Inégalités et croissance : une histoire des idées.” Afrique contemporaine n° 244 (4): 131–40.

Chort, Isabelle, Flore Gubert, and Jean-Noël Senne. 2012. “Migrant Networks as a Basis for Social Control: Remittance Incentives among Senegalese in France and Italy.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 42 (5): 858–74.

Cogneau, Denis, and Rémi Jedwab. 2012. “Commodity Price Shocks and Child Outcomes: The 1990 Cocoa Crisis in Côte d’Ivoire.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 60 (3): 507–34.

Ben Salem, Melika, Isabelle Bensidoun, and Selin Pelik. 2011. “Informal Employment in Turkey: An Overview.” Région et Développement 34: 57–84.

Bourguignon, François. 2011. “Non-Anonymous Growth Incidence Curves, Income Mobility and Social Welfare Dominance.” The Journal of Economic Inequality 9 (4): 605–27.

Carpio, Ximena V. Del, and Karen Macours. 2010. “Leveling the Intra-Household Playing Field: Compensation and Specialization in Child Labor Allocation.” In Research in Labor Economics, 31:259–95. Emerald Publishing Ltd.

Chort, Isabelle, and Sylvie Lambert. 2010. “Remises migratoires et redistributivité.” Regards croises sur l’economie n° 8 (2): 128–37.

Bourguignon, François, Martin Browning, and Pierre-André Chiappori. 2009. “Efficient Intra-Household Allocations and Distribution Factors: Implications and Identification.” The Review of Economic Studies 76 (2): 503–28.

Bourguignon, François. 2009. “Crime as a Social Cost of Poverty and Inequality: A Review Focusing on Developing Countries.” Revista Desarrollo y Sociedad.

Chauvet, Lisa, Flore Gubert, and Sandrine Mesplé-Somps. 2009. “Les Transferts Des Migrants Sont-Ils plus Efficaces Que l’aide Pour Améliorer La Santé Des Enfants ? Une Évaluation Économétrique Sur Des Données Inter et Intra-Pays.” Revue d’économie Du Développement 17 (4): 41–80.

Bourguignon, François, and F. Halsey Rogers. 2007. “Distributional Effects of Educational Improvements: Are We Using the Wrong Model?” Economics of Education Review, Economics of Education: Major Contributions and Future Directions – The Dijon Papers, 26 (6): 735–46.

Bourguignon, François, F. H. G. Ferreira, B. Milanovic, and Martin Ravallion. 2007. “Global Inequality and Poverty.” In The Princeton Encyclopedia of the World Economy.

Bourguignon, François, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, and Marta Menéndez. 2007. “Inequality of Opportunity in Brazil.” Review of Income and Wealth 53 (4): 585–618.

Bourguignon, François, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, and Michael Walton. 2007. “Equity, Efficiency and Inequality Traps: A Research Agenda.” The Journal of Economic Inequality 5 (2): 235–56.

Bourguignon, François. 2006. “From Income to Endowments: The Difficult Task of Expanding the Income Poverty Paradigm.” edited by David B. Grusky and Ravi Kanbur, 76–102. Stanford University Press.

Campante, Filipe R., Crespo Anna R. V., and Phillippe G. P. G. Leite. 2004. “Desigualdade Salarial Entre Raças No Mercado de Trabalho Urbano Brasileiro: Aspectos Regionais.” Revista Brasileira de Economia 58 (2): 185–210. n2

Related Working Papers and Projects

Anderson, Siwan, Guilhem Cassan, and Viktoria Hnatkovska. “The Caste System in Colonial India.”

Araujo, Maria Caridad, and Karen Macours. “Impacts of the Differential Exposure to Progresa after 20 Years.”

Atallah, Marian. “Born or Made? Skills, Human Capital Investment and Entrepreneurship in Vietnam.”

Atallah, Marian. “Skills and Self-Employment in Developing Countries: Evidence from the World Bank’s STEP Surveys.”

Bah, Tijan L., Catia Batista, Flore Gubert, and David McKenzie. “Can Information and Alternatives to Irregular Migration Reduce ‘Backway’ Migration from the Gambia?

Barham, Tania, Karen Macours, and John Maluccio. 2017. “Are Conditional Cash Transfers Fulfilling Their Promise? Schooling, Learning, and Earnings After 10 Years.” CEPR Discussion Paper, CEPR Discussion Papers, no. 11937 (March).

Barham, Tania, Karen Macours, and John Maluccio. 2018. “Experimental Evidence of Exposure to a Conditional Cash Transfer During Early Teenage Years: Young Women’s Fertility and Labor Market Outcomes.” CEPR Discussion Paper, no. 13165 (September).

Barrera, Oscar, and Claire Zanuzo. “Migration, Transfers and Labor Supply: Evidence from Haiti.”

Barrera, Oscar, Isabelle Bensidoun, and Anthony Edo. “Second Generation of Migrants, Can They Change the Perception about Migrants in Europe?”

Barrera, Oscar, Karen Macours, Patrick Premand, and Renos Vakis. “Impact Evaluation of Randomized Parenting Information by Text Message.”

Barrera, Oscar, Karen Macours, Patrick Premand, and Renos Vakis. “Text Messages, Behavioral Changes and Cognitive Stimulation. A Random Controlled Trial in Nicaragua.”

Barrera, Oscar. “The Effect of Aspiration on Primary School Pupils Outcomes in Middle Class Households of Bogota -Colombia, An Spatial Approach.”

Barsoum, G., Bruno Crépon, D. Gardiner, Bastien Michel, and William Parienté. “Evaluating the Effects of Entrepreneurship Edutainment in Egypt.”

Behaghel, Luc, and Sylvie Lambert. 2017. “Polygamy and Intergenerational Transmission of Education in Senegal.”

Ben Salem, Melika, and Chahir Zakri. “Revisiting the Impact of Trade Openness on Informal and Irregular Employment in Egypt.”

Ben Salem, Melika, Jérémie Gignoux, Marta Menéndez, Irene Sewalness, Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann, and Chahir Zaki. “Trade Liberalization and Household Welfare in Egypt.”

Bernard, Tanguy, Sylvie Lambert, Karen Macours, and Margaux Vinez. “Adoption of Improved Seed Varieties in DRC: Experimental Evidence on the Role of Supply Constraints, Targeting and Intra-Household Decision Making.”

Bertelli, Olivia, H. Giacobino, H. Huillery, J. Kazianga, M. Koussoube, Bastien Michel, M. Olapade, and L. Rouanet. “Empowering Adolescent Girls in the Sahel: Evidence from a Multi-Country RCT of the Sahel Women Empowerment and Demographic Dividend Project.”

Bossuroy, Thomas, Dean Karlan, Harounan Kazianga, William Parienté, Patrick Premand, Christopher Udry, Julia Vaillant, and Kelsey Wright. 2020. “Adaptive Social Protection in Niger.”

Cogneau, Denis, and Alexander Moradi. 2020. “Living Conditions in French Colonial Africa (1880-1960).” 2020.

Cogneau, Denis, and Jérémie Gignoux. 2009. Earnings Inequality and Educational Mobility in Brazil over Two Decades. Poverty, Inequality and Policy in Latin America, CESifo Seminar Series,. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Press.

Cogneau, Denis, and Léa Rouanet. 2011. “Living Conditions in Côte D’ivoire and Ghana, 1925–1985: What Do Survey Data on Height Stature Tell Us.” Economic History of Developing Regions 26 (2).

Cogneau, Denis, and Michael Grimm. 2007. “The Measurement of Income Distribution Dynamics When Demographics Are Correlated with Income.” Review of Income and Wealth 53 (2): 246–74.

Cogneau, Denis, and Michael Grimm. 2008. “The Impact of AIDS Mortality on the Distribution of Income in Côte d’Ivoire.” Journal of African Economies 17 (5): 688–728.

Cogneau, Denis, and Pauline Rossi. 2019. “Malaria Control and Infant Mortality in Africa,” September.

Comola, Margherita, and Amit Dekel. Forthcoming. “Network Externalities in Bilateral Link Formation: What’s the Value of Friends of Friends?”

Comola, Margherita, and L. de Mello. 2011. “How Does Decentralized Minimum Wage Setting Affect Employment and Informality? The Case of Indonesia.” Review of Income and Wealth 57: S79–99.

Comola, Margherita, and L. de Mello. 2013. “Salaried Employment and Earnings in Indonesia: New Evidence on the Selection Bias.” Applied Economics 45: 2808–16.

Comola, Margherita, and M. Mendola. 2015. “The Formation of Migrant Networks.” The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 117 (2): 592–618.

Crespin-Boucaud, Juliette, and Rozenn Hotte. 2020. “Impact of Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainments : Evidence from Senegal.”

Crespin-Boucaud, Juliette. 2020. “Interethnic and Interfaith Marriages in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Development 125 (January): 104668.

De Vreyer, Philippe, and Sylvie Lambert. 2020. “Inequality, Poverty, and the Intra-Household Allocation of Consumption in Senegal.” The World Bank Economic Review.

De Vreyer, Philippe, Sylvie Lambert, Abla Safir, and Momar Ballé Sylla. 2008. “Pauvreté et Structure Familiale, Pourquoi Une Nouvelle Enquête ?” Statéco, no. 102.

De Vreyer, Philippe, Sylvie Lambert, and Martin Ravallion. 2020. “Unpacking Household Engel Curves.” NBER Working Paper, Working Paper Series, no. 26850 (March).

Deschênes, Sarah, Christelle Dumas, and Sylvie Lambert. 2020. “Household Resources and Individual Strategies.” PSE Working Papers.

Díaz, Juan-José, and Victor Saldarriaga. 2020. “A Drop of Love? Rainfall Shocks and Spousal Abuse: Evidence from Rural Peru.”

Díaz, Juan-José, and Victor Saldarriaga. forthcoming. “(Un)Conditional Love in the Time of Conditional Cash Transfers: The Effect of the Peruvian JUNTOS Program on Spousal Abuse.”

Duflo, Esther, Pascaline Dupas, Thomas Ginn, Grace Makana Barasa, Moses Baraza, Victor Pouliquen, and Vandana Sharma. 2019. “HIV Prevention among Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV and Male Condom Distribution in Rural Kenya.” PLoS ONE 14 (7).

Dumas, Christelle, and Sylvie Lambert. 2008. “Le Travail Des Enfants : Quelles Politiques Pour Quels Résultats ?” Édition Rue d’Ulm, Collection Du Cepremap, no. 11.

Dutronc-Postel, Paul, and Alessandro Tondini. “Large Means-Tested Pensions with Informal Labor Markets: Evidence from South Africa.”

Elbers, Chris, Peter Lanjouw, and Phillippe G. Leite. 2008. “Brazil within Brazil : Testing the Poverty Map Methodology in Minas Gerais.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, no. 5413.

Estrada, Ricardo, Jérémie Gignoux, and Augustina Hatrick. “Learning about Opportunity: Spillovers of Elite School Admissions in Peru.”

Ferreira, Francisco H. G., Jérémie Gignoux, and Meltem Aran. 2011. “Measuring Inequality of Opportunity with Imperfect Data: The Case of Turkey.” The Journal of Economic Inequality 9 (4): 651–80.

Ferreira, Francisco H. G., Leite, Philippe G., Julie A. Litchfield, and Gabriel Ulyssea. 2006. “Os Efeitos Do Antigo Programa Bolsa Escola Sobre A Pobreza, A Desigualdade, A Escolaridade E O Trabalho Infantil: Uma Abordagem De Microssimulação.” In Desigualdade de Renda No Brasil : Uma Análise Da Queda Recente, edited by Ricardo Paes de Barros, Miguel Nathan Foguel, and Gabriel Ulyssea. Brasilia: Ipea.

Ferreira, Francisco H. G., Phillipe G. Leite, and Matthew Wai-Po. 2007. “Trade Liberalization, Employment Flows, and Wage Inequality in Brazil.” World Bank Policy Research Paper, no. 4108.

Ferreira, Francisco H. G., Phillipe G. Leite, Luiz A. Pereira da Silva, and Paulo Pichetti. 2004. “Can the Distributional Impacts of Macroeconomic Shocks Be Predicted? A Comparison of the Performance of Macro-Micro Models with Historical Data for Brazil.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, no. 3303 (July).

Giacobino, H., H. Huillery, Bastien Michel, and M. Sage. “Why Education Matters for Women Empowerment. Evidence from a Field Experiment in Niger.”

Gignoux, Jérémie, and Marta Menendez. “Long-Term Impacts of Earthquakes on Human Capital and Welfare.”

Glennerster, Rachel, Joanna Murray, and Victor Poliquen. 2020. “Mass Media and Modern Contraception Uptake: Experimental Evidence from Burkina Faso,” June.

Gubert, Flore, and Anne-Sophie Robilliard. “Dynamics of Rural Poverty in Madagascar.”

Gubert, Flore, and Anne-Sophie Robilliard. “Testing for Insurance Using Panel Data on Rural Madagascar.”

Gubert, Flore, and Christophe J. Nordman. 2008. “Return Migration and Small Enterprise Development in the Maghreb.”

Gubert, Flore, and Christophe J. Nordman. 2008. “Who Benefits Most from Migration? An Empirical Analysis Using Data on Return Migrants in the Maghreb.”

Gubert, Flore, and Christophe J. Nordman. 2010. “Migration Trends in North Africa: Focus on Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria.” OECD Journal: General Papers 2009 (4): 75–108.

Gurgand, Marc, Sylvie Lambert, Hillel Rapoport, and Yves Zenou. 2012. “Migration and Development: Insights from the 3rd AFD-World Bank Migration and Development Conference.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 42 (5): 761–64.

Hilger, Anne, and Christophe J. Nordman. 2020. “The Determinants of Trust: Evidence from Rural South India.” IZA Discussion Paper, no. 13150 (April).

Hilger, Anne, Christophe J. Nordman, and Leopold R. Sarr. 2018. “Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills, Hiring Channels, and Wages in Bangladesh.” IZA Discussion Paper, no. 11578 (June).

Hotte, Rozenn, and Sarah Deschênes. 2020. “Assessing the Effects of an Education Policy on Women’s Wellbeing: Evidence from Benin.”

Hotte, Rozenn, and Sylvie Lambert. 2020. “Marriage Payments and Wife’s Welfare: All You Need Is Love.”

Imbert, Clement, Marlon Seror, Yifan Zhang, and Yanos Zylberberg. 2019. “Migrants and Firms: Evidence from China.”

Kaur, Supreet, Sendhil Mullainathan, Suanna Oh, and Frank Schilbach. “Does Financial Strain Lower Productivity?”

Kavanaugh, Guadalupe, Maria Sviatschi, and Iva Trako. 2018. “Women Officers, Gender Violence and Human Capital: Evidence from Women’s Justice Centers in Peru.” PSE Working Papers, June.

Kembou, Samuel, and Bastien Michel. “Using Mobile Technology to Improve Early Childhood Development in Remote Areas: Evidence from Côte d’Ivoire.”

Krishnaswamy, Nandita, Suanna Oh, and Yogita Shamdasani. 2020. “Demand for Flexible Work and Contract Choice.”

Laajaj, Rachid, and Duncan Webb. “Why Are the Poor More Likely to Contract COVID-19?”

Laajaj, Rachid, and Karen Macours. “Skills, Heterogeneous Quality of Agricultural Commercial Inputs and Learning through Experimentation.”

Leite, Philippe G. 2012. “Targeting Assessment of the Cash Transfer Program.” World Bank Group, June.

Leite, Philippe G., Emmanuel Skoufias, and Francisco Haimovich. 2009. “Expanding Access to Microfinance : Evidence from the Crediamigo Natural Experiment in the NE of Brazil.” Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group.

Leite, Phillippe G., Ambar Narayan, and Emmanuel Skoufias. 2011. “How Do Ex Ante Simulations Compare with Ex Post Evaluations ? Evidence from the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, no. 5705 (June).

Leite, Phillippe G., Terry McKinley, and Rafael Guerreiro Osorio. 2006. “The Post-Apartheid Evolution of Earnings Inequality in South Africa, 1995-2004.” International Poverty Centre, United Nations Development Programme Working Paper, no. 23 (October).

Libois, François. 2016. “Households in Times of War: Adaptation Strategies during the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal.” CRED Working Paper.

Lopez-Avila, Diana. 2016. “Measuring Women’s Empowerment: Lessons to Better Understand Domestic Violence.”

Luksic, Juan. “Centralizing Admission System to the University.”

Luksic, Juan. “Impact of an Earthquake on Educational Outcomes.”

Luksic, Juan. “Impact of Immigrants on Skills Based Neighborhood Effects.”

Macours, Karen, Patrick Premand, and Renos Vakis. 2012. “Transfers, Diversification and Household Risk Strategies: Experimental Evidence with Lessons for Climate Change Adaptation.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, no. 6053 (April).

Macours, Karen, Patrick Premand, and Renos Vakis. 2013. “Demand versus Returns? Pro-Poor Targeting of Business Grants and Vocational Skills Training.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, no. 6389.

Macours, Karen, Patrick Premand, and Renos Vakis. “Long-Term Evaluation of Atención A Crisis.”

Macours, Karen, Patrick Premand, Norbert Schady, and Renos Vakis. “Impact Evaluation of Randomized Early Childhood Parenting Intervention in Nicaragua.”

Margolis, David and Laurine Martinoty. “Who Lives with Whom? Household Composition and Female Labor Supply in Matriachal Bhutan”

Margolis, David and Thiago Scarelli. “When You Can’t Afford to Wait for a Job: The Role of Time Discounting for Own-Account Workers in Developing Countries.”

Margolis, David N. 2014. “Introducing a Statutory Minimum Wage in Middle and Low Income Countries.” IZA World of Labor, May.

Michel, Bastien. “Measuring the Impact of Preschools in Lower-Income Countries: Experimental Evidence from Côte d’Ivoire.”

Oh, Suanna, and Sneha Subramanian. “Gender Norms in Marriage and Female Labor Productivity.”

Oh, Suanna. 2020. “Does Identify Affect Labor Supply.” CDEP-CGEG Working Paper, no. 85 (May).

Pinto, Maria Florencia. “Stay at Home with Grandma, Mom Is Going to Work.”

Pinto, Maria Florencia. “Financial Incentives, Fertility and Son Preference in Armenia.”

Pouliquen, Victor. 2019. “Firm Formalization, Individual Property Rights and Intra-Household Relationships.”

Premand, Patrick, and Kelsey Wright. 2020. “Women’s Empowerment and Intrahousehold Allocation of Resources among Women in Niger.”

Rossi, Pauline, and Villar Paula. Forthcoming. “Private Health Investments under Competing Risks: Evidence from Malaria Control in Senegal.” Journal of Health Economics.

Rouanet, Léa. “The Double African Paradox, Height and Selective Mortality in West Africa.”

Sanchez Chico, Ana, Karen Macours, John A. Maluccio, and Marco Stampini. 2018. “Six Years of Comunidades Solidarias Rurales: Impacts on School Entry of an Ongoing Conditional Cash Transfer Program in El Salvador.” IADB Working Paper, no. 908 (June).

Scarelli, Thiago, and David Margolis. 2020. “When You Can’t Afford to Wait for a Job: The Role of Time Discounting for Own-Account Workers in Developing Countries.”

Senne, J.N., Flore Gubert, and Anne-Sophie Robilliard. 2007. “Stratégies matrimoniales et legs à l’occasion du mariage : application au cas des ménages ruraux malgaches.”

Seror, Marlon. 2019. “Migrants’ Beliefs and Investment.”

Stein, Mattea. 2020. “Know-How and Know-Who: Effects of a Randomized Training on Network Changes between Small Urban Entrepreneurs.”

Tondini, Alessandro, Cally Ardington, and Ingrid Woolard. 2017. “Public Pensions and Elderly Informal Employment: Evidence from a Change in Retirement Age in South Africa.” SALDRU Working Papers, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town, 206.

Tondini, Alessandro. “The Lasting Labor Market Effects of Cash Transfers: Evidence from South Africa’s Child Support Grant.”

Trako, Iva. 2018. “Returning Home After Conflict Displacement: Labor Supply and Schooling Outcomes Among Kosovar Households.” PSE Working Papers, July.

Trako, Iva. 2019. “Fertility and Parental Labor-Force Participation: New Evidence from a Developing Country in the Balkans,” Policy Research Working Papers, , no. 8931 (July).

Valle, Alejandro del. 2020. “The Effects of Public Health Insurance in Labor Markets with Informal Jobs: Evidence from Mexico.”

Vera Rueda, Maria Julieta. 2020. “When Fathers Are Gone: The Consequences of Paternal Absence during the Early Years.”

Vreyer, Philippe de, and Sylvie Lambert. 2013. “Household Risk Management in Senegal.” World Development Report Background Papers. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Webb, Duncan, “Critical Periods in Cognitive and Socioemotional Development: Evidence from Weather Shocks in Indonesia“.